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After the introductions of each family, the children of the 5 groups of parents are sent to the soundproof room. A single candidate of the opposite gender then goes on stage one by one to the face the parents of the 5 candidates, whilst not being able to see the faces of their children [10] [11]. The single candidate then plays two videos to reveal information about themselves including their occupation and past relationships.

During this time, the parents compete for the final 3 spots. In between the videos, the candidate, the parents and the host exchange banter with each other when videos are not shown. The children in the soundproof room are able to see the candidate through a separate screen and are also able to communicate with their parents through calling them on the phone inbetween videos. After both videos have been shown, if the 3 finalist spots are not filled up, the host then asks the children in the soundproof room if they want their parents to join the other finalists.

If the remaining children in the soundproof room who are not finalists chose not to join the finalists with their parents, the candidate leaves without a date. If the candidate is successful in being able to get 3 groups of parents to fill up the three finalist spots, the candidate then puts forward a question to the three groups of parents from a set menu of queries.

Following that, they are able to choose one of the children from the three groups of parents as their date. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Meet the Parents disambiguation. Retrieved 2 April Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 30 December It is a MWe gross reactor with two coolant loops.

Six more at three sites were firmly planned after them, at Sanmen, Haiyang and Lufeng for CGN , and at least 30 more were proposed to follow. A State Council Research Office report in January emphasised that these should have priority over alternative designs such as CPR, and this position strengthened following the Fukushima accident.

The reactors are built from modules fabricated adjacent to each site. The timeline is 50 months from first concrete to fuel loading, then six months to grid connection for the first four units, with this expected to reduce significantly for the following units. Grid purchase price is expected to exceed CNY 0. It is said to have reduced cost and improved operation and maintenance attributes. Alstom and DEC have supplied more than half of the turbine generator sets for Chines nuclear power plants to It is one of 16 Key National Projects in China. Basic design of the MWt ca.

Seismic rating is gal. In November SNPTC said that construction would start in March , the delay being to ensure that the primary coolant pump issues on AP were sorted and to avoid winter conditions for the major concrete pour. It is expected to take 56 months to build, with later units coming down to 50 months. A government figure is CNY CAP may be followed by a larger, three-loop CAP design if the passive cooling system can be scaled to that level.

CNNC was keen to create its own brand of advanced second-generation reactor with full intellectual property rights, and wanted to build two initial CNP plants at Fangjiashan, adjacent to Qinshan near Shanghai, under the 11th Economic Plan, though the design probably would not have been ready. CNNC says they are free of French intellectual property rights. CNNC is also developing the design to the ACP which it calls a third-generation design and expected to be built on Hainan or in the northwest Gansu province and exported. It has fuel assemblies 3. In May CNNC finished a preliminary safety analysis report, and was working on construction design in order to be ready for construction by the end of the year.

They are similar to those already commissioned at that site in and , and similar to Qinshan 1 — China's first indigenously-designed by SNERDI nuclear power plant. The design took four years and was funded to CNY million. It has passive safety features and will normally be installed underground. Seismic tolerance is Gal. It has 57 fuel assemblies 2.

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It has passive cooling for decay heat removal. Its MWt produces about MWe, and power plants comprising two to six of these are envisaged, with year design life and month refueling. Industrial and district heat uses are also envisaged, as is floating nuclear power plant FNPP application. Construction time was expected to be months for the two ACP units. The project involves a joint venture of three companies for the pilot plant: Export potential is considered high, with full intellectual property rights. It is pitched to replace coal plants and supply district heating, and has a design operating lifetime of 60 years.

The 89 fuel assemblies are the same as for the CAP but shorter. The CAP will be installed in a 32 m deep underground caisson structure with a seismic design basis of Gal, even in soft ground. It has both active and passive cooling and in an accident scenario, no operator intervention is required for seven days. The seismic design basis is Gal. Its fuel assemblies 4. It cost CNY Following the Fukushima accident, numbers will be only 20, and there will be no further approvals. However, Areva retains intellectual property rights, which constrains overseas sales since the Chinese would need agreement from Areva on a case-by-case basis.

It was to have a year life and Gal seismic capability. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, already designing the similar-size Atmea1 with Areva, said it will not be involved. Reactor pressure vessel is 17m high and 4. It is designed as a module in larger plant and would be installed underground. Reactor pressure vessel is 7. It is designed for mounting on a barge as floating nuclear power plant FNPP or possible submersible.

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The applications for these are similar to those for the ACP In November it announced some kind of construction start for the demonstration unit. See further in Floating nuclear power plants section below. Both are three-loop designs based to some extent on the French M, but the cores are very different: It has three coolant loops, double containment and active safety systems with some passive elements, and a year design life.

The passive systems are able to operate for 72 hours with a sufficient inventory of storage water and dedicated batteries. The CNNC and CGN versions will be very similar but not identical; they will have slightly different safety systems, with CNNC emphasising more passive safety under AP influence with increased containment volume and two active safety trains, and CGN with French influence having three active safety trains. Also each organisation will maintain much of its own supply chain. The 'rationalisation' was helped by greater commonality in ownership of the two companies as set out in September though still not implemented a year later.

The company is "committed to the continued integration and development of Hualong One as an independent third generation nuclear power technology, with the unified management of the Hualong brand, intellectual property and other related assets at home and abroad. This reactor design will be dedicated to the domestic market and some international markets such as Pakistan, Argentina, and possibly Eastern Europe.

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It is under construction in Pakistan. Russia's Energoatom is responsible for maintenance from The contract is reportedly valued at more than CNY 20 billion. China will provide finance, with Russia responsible for the nuclear island only — indicating signficant localisation. Any replication would be on the basis of involving local engineering teams, not on a turnkey basis, but the technology is now well understood and the decades-old Candu-6 design would likely pose fewer problems for technology transfer than state-of-the-art third-generation designs from Westinghouse and Areva.

In September , AECL signed a technology development agreement with CNNC which opened the possibility of it supplying further Candu-6 reactors and undertaking fuel cycle developments based on them. This aims at exploring co-generation options in the near-term and producing hydrogen in the long term.

The twin units, each with a single steam generator, will drive a single MWe steam turbine. Core height is 11 metres in a 25 m high, 5. The engineering of the key structures, systems, and components is based on Chinese capabilities, though they include completely new technical features. Each reactor will be loaded with , fuel elements, each 60 mm diameter and containing 7 g of fuel enriched to 8. Some graphite moderator pebbles the same size are included. Pebbles are released into the top of the core one by one with the reactor operating.

They are correspondingly removed from the bottom, broken ones are separated, the burn-up is measured, and spent fuel elements are screened out and transferred to storage. Reactivity control is primarily by 24 control rods, secondarily by small absorber spheres dropped by gravity through six channels alongside the control rods in the graphite side reflector. For full details see Appendix 1 to this page, Government Structure and Ownership. Thermal efficiency is CNEC and the provincial government are applying to the NDRC for approval, and expected to start construction in for grid connection in This appears to be instead of Ruijin which is inland.

Development of these acknowledges the role of heating in air pollution, particularly PM 2. Pre-feasibility studies suggest first commissioning in A 65 MWt fast neutron reactor — the Chinese Experimental Fast Reactor CEFR — near Beijing achieved criticality in July , and was grid-connected a year later but is omitted from the operating table below as being minor and experimental. Xiapu in Fujian province is also reported to be the site for the prototype so-called travelling-wave reactor TWR-P. The first two in China were planned to start construction in at Sanming, Fujian province see see section below on Sanming.

Desalination would be part of the role. Construction of the first demonstration FNPP was expected to start in , with electricity generation to begin in There are plans for 20 more. In September , the State Council approved plans for two units at Sanmen, followed by six units at Yangjiang two to start with , these to be or MWe reactors pioneering Generation III nuclear technology from overseas. The Sanmen in Zhejiang province and Yangjiang in Guangdong province reactors were subject to an open bidding process for third-generation designs, with contracts to be awarded in mid — in the event, mid — putting them clearly into the 11th Five Year Plan.

This open bidding process underlined the extent to which China is making itself part of the world nuclear industry, and yet at first remaining somewhat ambivalent about that.

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Three bids were received for the four Sanmen and Yangjiang reactors: Some experts spent over a year evaluating Generation III designs and in September most of the 34 assigned to decide voted for the AP The key factors in choosing this were passive design, simplified safety system, modular construction giving more rapid build and better cost control, and smaller components allowing more ready localization. The USA, French and Russian governments were reported to be giving firm support as finance and support arrangements were put in place.

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission gave approval for Westinghouse to export equipment and engineering services as well as the initial fuel load and one replacement for the four units. Bids for both two-unit plants were received in Beijing on behalf of the two customers: Bids were for the nuclear portion of each plant only, the turbine tenders to be called for subsequently.

Areva and Westinghouse were short-listed. However, the decision on reactor type was delayed, and came under review at the highest political level, with CNNC evidently pushing for the use of indigenous second-generation designs for both sites. In December , 22 months after the bids were submitted and after several revisions to them, the Westinghouse AP reactor design was confirmed for the four units — two each at Sanmen and Yangjiang. Early in , the two units planned for the Yangjiang site were switched to Haiyang in the more northerly Shandong province, making way for two EPR units Areva was in negotiations to build at Yangjiang.

Later in , plans for the EPRs under consideration for Yangjiang were transferred to another Guangdong site — Taishan — since there was pressure to build a lot of capacity quickly at Yangjiang. In December the Chinese and US governments signed the intergovernmental agreement for the construction of AP projects in China and technology transfer. Sanmen site works commenced in February and full construction on Sanmen 1 — the world's first AP unit — officially commenced on 19 April The reactor was initially expected to begin operation at the end of with the second less than one year later.

First fuel was loaded into Sanmen 1 in April , the unit was grid connected in June and entered commercial operation in September First fuel was loaded into Sanmen 2 in July , the unit was grid connected in August , and entered commercial operation in November First concrete at Haiyang 1 was in September , and the pressure vessel was installed in January First fuel was loaded into Haiyang 1 in June , the unit was grid connected in August , and entered commercial operation in October First fuel was loaded into Haiyang 2 in August , the unit was grid connected in October , and entered commercial operation in January Construction has been slower than planned, the main problem being with US-made main coolant pumps four in each reactor.

These worked well in normal operation but had insufficient inertia to continue long enough for full passive safety effectiveness when not powered. This is also a milestone enabling modified pumps to be supplied to seven other AP units under construction in both China and the USA. Extensive reviews and detailed post-test inspections by the NNSA confirmed performance as designed during the final testing.

Ltd SNPEC , a SNPTC subsidiary, for technical support for the first two Dafan, Xianning units in Hubei province, including engineering and design management, project controls, quality assurance, construction management and project management. The pressure vessels for the other two units are being made by Chinese manufacturers: The Sanmen 1 reactor pressure vessel arrived on site from Doosan in July The turbines boost the capacity of the reactors from their original MWe to MWe gross.

In January , a further agreement was signed with SNPTC to deploy further AP units, and to extend the technology cooperation agreement for another two years. SNPTC said the deal also included measures "to develop cooperation in the field of overseas markets. In June Westinghouse confirmed that as part of the earlier construction agreement it would transfer intellectual property rights to SNPTC. In September Westinghouse said that it expected to be involved in orders for eight further units, followed by 12 more inland and 12 on the coast.

This deal was not expected to involve the technology transfer which is central to the Westinghouse contracts, since the EPR has multiple redundant safety systems rather than passive safety systems and is seen to be more complex and expensive, hence of less long-term interest to China. However, negotiations with Areva and EDF dragged on and in August it was announced that the EPR project had been shuffled to Taishan in Guangdong so that six CPR units previously planned for that site could be built at Yangjiang as soon as possible.

The joint venture partners will put up CNY TNPC was responsible for overseeing the building, then own and operate the plant. EDF is project manager and architect for the Flamanville 3 EPR project in France, and this initiative consolidates its change in corporate strategy outside France. CGN authorised construction at Taishan in July and first concrete was poured in October , though the official inauguration ceremony was not until 21 December. The first unit was expected to be connected to the grid early in with commercial operation two months later, and the second was to be completed in , but they are at least four years behind.

The major components for unit 1 are imported: The first generator was shipped by DEC in August In December unit 1 entered commercial operation.

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The first two nuclear power plants in mainland China were at Daya Bay near Hong Kong and Qinshan, south of Shanghai, with construction starting in the mids. China's first economic plan was in and began China's centrally planned industrialization under Mao Zedong. It incorporated the construction of eight nuclear power plants, though the timeline for contracts was extended, putting the last two projects into the 11th plan.

The Eleventh Economic Plan for the years set even more ambitious goals than the Tenth for new nuclear plant construction, and marked a watershed in China's commitment to third-generation reactors, such as the Sanmen plant in Zhejiang province and Haiyang plant in Shandong province see section above on Reactor technology as well as maturing of CPR technology.

In , it was announced that three state-owned corporations had been authorised by the NNSA to own and operate nuclear power plants: Taohuajiang, Xianning, and Pengze 2 reactors each except Taohuajiang: However, construction starts were delayed following the Fukushima accident, and all the inland plants were put on hold. More than 16 provinces, regions and municipalities announced intentions to build nuclear power plants in the 12th Five Year Plan Provinces put together firm proposals by and submitted them to the central government's National Development and Reform Commission NDRC for approval during A great many proposals were received, many of which will be deferred to the 13th Plan.

In CPI had plans to achieve 14 GWe of operational capacity by , with 10 GWe under construction then, at nine sites with 40 units. The complex ownership structure of Chinese nuclear plants is described in Appendix 1: Government Structure and Ownership, and China's considerable heavy engineering and manufacturing capacity is detailed in the information page on Heavy Manufacturing of Power Plants. The capacity at the end of was for eight sets of reactor equipment per year — over MWe.

On the people and skills front, 47 colleges and research institutes have nuclear major, and more than graduate each year in 10th Five-Year Plan, 11, in 11th Five-Year Plan. This limits national and provincial electricity investors relative to the three major nuclear utilities. These are essentially on the one site in Guangdong province, close to Hong Kong. Commercial operation of the two Daya Bay units was in February and May There were long outages in when Framatome had to replace major components.

Reactor vessel heads were replaced in Construction started in May and Ling Ao 1 started up in February entering commercial operation in May. Ling Ao 2 was connected to the grid about September and entered commercial operation in January CNNC's Qinshan 1 in Zhejiang province km southwest of Shanghai, is China's first indigenously-designed and constructed nuclear power plant though with the pressure vessel supplied by Mitsubishi, Japan.

Construction work spanned 6. It was shut down for 14 months for major repairs from mid CNNP applied for a year licence extension in , to take the unit past In October , Qinshan 1 was shut down for a major upgrade. The entire instrumentation and control system was replaced, along with the reactor pressure vessel head and control rod drives. Areva NP supervised the work, which is likely to lead to life extension beyond the original 30 years.

Unit 1 started up at the end of and entered commercial operation in April Unit 2 started up in March , with commercial operation in May Construction of the second stage of Qinshan Phase II was formally inaugurated at the end of April , though first concrete had been poured for unit 3 in March. That for unit 4 was poured in January After 53 months' construction, unit 3 was grid-connected on 1 August , and entered commercial operation 12 weeks later 6.

Unit 4 was grid-connected in November and entered commercial operation in April CNNC claims that Qinshan phase II "is the first independently-designed, built, managed and operated large commercial nuclear power station in China.

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Construction began in and unit 1 started up in September and unit 2 in April They are each about MWe net. The first unit was grid connected in May and put into commercial operation in June The second was grid connected in May , with commercial operation in August Design life is 40 years. Unit 1 started up in June with grid connection in mid-July, 54 months after construction start, and entered commercial operation in September. Unit 2 was grid connected in May, 60 months after construction start, and commenced commercial operation on schedule in August It is included in IAEA figures for operational reactors.

From it expected to commission three units per year and, from , four units per year. It projected a total of MWe wind by CNNC pointed out that there was room for 30 GWe of further capacity by in coastal areas and maybe more inland such as Hunan "where conditions permit". Its development projects since than have changed to some extent as described below. Where construction has started, the dates are marked in bold. Those here not under construction are marked as 'planned' in the WNA reactor table.

It is likely that some planned CAP units beyond about 30 in total will be displaced by Hualong One. Nuclear power units proposed. Some of these entries are based on uncertain information.

This is the first nuclear power station receiving central government approval to build four units at the same time, and the first in northeast China. Construction of the first unit of the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant in Dalian, Liaoning, started in August It uses CPR reactors for units , and in the cold water there they are each CGN will be responsible for the project construction and the operation of the first five years after commercial operation, with full participation of CPI. First power from unit 1 was expected in July , but after delays over it started up in January and was grid connected in February, with commercial operation in June.

Unit 2 started up in October , was grid connected in November, with commercial operation in May Unit 4 started up in March and was grid connected early April 78 months construction, after fuel loading was suspended for several months and due to low demand it was not due to start full commercial operation until , but this was brought forward to September Construction of CGN's six-unit Ningde nuclear power plant commenced in This is on three islands in Fuding city in northeast of Fujian province, and the first construction phase comprises four CPR units.

It marks a significant step into nuclear power for Datang. Construction of the first unit started in February , and it was grid connected in December after 58 months. It was declared in commercial operation in April First concrete for the second unit was in November , it was grid connected in January , with commercial operation in May. Construction start for the third was in January and for the fourth at the end of September Grid connection for unit 3 was in March , with commercial operation in June.

Grid connection for unit 4 was in March with commercial operation in July. Construction of the six-unit Fuqing nuclear power plant km south of Ningde also commenced in at Qianxe, Fuqing city in Fujian, between Fuzhou and Putian. First concrete for unit 1 was poured in November , for unit 2 in June , for unit 3 in December , and for unit 4 in September or October , almost immediately after NNSA authorization.

Unit 1 started up in July , was grid connected in August after 69 months' construction and entered commercial operation in November. Unit 2 started up in July and was grid connected in August after 74 months' construction and started commercial operation in October. Unit 3 started up in July , was grid-connected in September after 70 months' construction and achieved commercial operation in October.

DEC will supply the steam generators. First concrete for unit 1 was poured in July , and for unit 2, late in Guangxi Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Co. CPI was earlier involved. The first unit achieved criticality and was grid-connected in October and began commercial operation in January , the second was grid-connected in July In it was reported that Guangxi wanted to allow for exports to Vietnam. Construction of unit 3 started in December and unit 4 in December Thailand has added Hualong One to its technology shortlist.

After plans changed in the light of pressing generation needs in the region, Yangjiang will be the second nuclear power base of the China General Nuclear Power Group CGN. Development of all six units of the Yangjiang plant was approved in , with CPR later confirmed as the basic technology for it. Unit 1 criticality was achieved in December , with grid connection at the end of the month and commercial operation in March Unit 2 was grid connected in March after 67 months' construction and entered commercial operation in June.

Construction of unit 3 started in November , unit 4 in November , immediately after NNSA authorization, then the final two as the second construction phase followed from September , with the last to be built by Unit 3 criticality was in October , with grid connection later that month, so 59 months' construction time. Commercial operation was from January Unit 4 grid connection was in January , after 50 months' construction time, and commercial operation was in March.

Construction of unit 5 as an ACPR began in mid-September , with grid connection in May after construction of 56 months. Unit 6 construction start was late in December First criticality of unit 1 was in October with grid connection in November and commercial operation in December and was grid connected in mid-January Unit 2 started up in December , with grid connection in mid-January and commercial operation in February.

The two units bring the Qinshan total effectively to nine, with MWe. At the end of , the Westinghouse AP reactor design was selected for Sanmen in Zhejiang province and for Yangjiang in Guangdong province, with the latter site changed to Haiyang. Contracts with Westinghouse and Shaw for two units were signed in July Construction on Sanmen 1 — the world's first AP unit — officially commenced on 19 April The reactor pressure vessel, from Doosan, was installed in September The reactor was expected to begin operation in December with unit 2 less than a year later. Construction on unit 2 commenced in mid-December The pressure vessel and steam generators were made in China.

MHI supplied the turbine generators for both units. In March NNSA said that start-up would be delayed to December due to design changes and problems with the US-supplied main coolant pumps which created further delay. Following successful tests, the modified pumps were shipped from Curtis-Wright to the site in October Sanmen 1 was grid connected in June and commenced commercial operation in September , delivering MWe net. Unit 2 was grid connected in August and entered commercial operation in November. The original expectation was for 68 months construction, in fact it took months for unit 1 and months for unit 2.

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  • Another six units are envisaged for the Sanmen site. First concrete was poured in September for unit 1 and June for unit 2. The cubic metre basemat of each was placed in a single pouring of less than 48 hours. The reactor pressure vessel RPV and steam generators for unit 2 are being made in China. These units were expected to commence operation in December and March , but in March NNSA said that start-up would be delayed into due to design changes and component problems. However, problems with the US-supplied main coolant pumps then delayed grid connection to August for unit 1, and October for unit 2.

    Construction time was initially expected to be 63 months, but in fact lasted months for unit 1, and months for unit 2. These units each deliver MWe net. Construction start had been expected in late , and pressure testing on the RPV was completed in mid Unit 1 was commissioned in June , after months construction, to deliver MWe net, using a low-speed turbine, with unit 2 expected online in In announcing the delayed start, CGN said: Areva sourced the main components for both units from Japan and China.