The former Hebrew term is believed by some to refer to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general. As such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute a word used in some translations of this biblical passage. Some early flutes were made out of tibias shin bones. The flute has also always been an essential part of Indian culture and mythology,  and the cross flute believed by several accounts to originate in India   as Indian literature from BCE has made vague references to the cross flute.
A flute produces sound when a stream of air directed across a hole in the instrument creates a vibration of air at the hole.
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This excites the air contained in the usually cylindrical resonant cavity within the flute. The flutist changes the pitch of the sound produced by opening and closing holes in the body of the instrument, thus changing the effective length of the resonator and its corresponding resonant frequency. By varying the air pressure, a flutist can also change the pitch by causing the air in the flute to resonate at a harmonic rather than the fundamental frequency without opening or closing any holes.
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Head joint geometry appears particularly critical to acoustic performance and tone,  but there is no clear consensus on a particular shape amongst manufacturers. Acoustic impedance of the embouchure hole appears the most critical parameter. A study in which professional flutists were blindfolded could find no significant differences between flutes made from a variety of metals.
The study concluded that there was "no evidence that the wall material has any appreciable effect on the sound color or dynamic range". In its most basic form, a flute is an open tube which is blown into. After focused study and training, players use controlled air-direction to create an airstream in which the air is aimed downward into the tone hole of the flute's headjoint. There are several broad classes of flutes. However, some flutes, such as the whistle , gemshorn , flageolet , recorder , tin whistle , tonette , fujara , and ocarina have a duct that directs the air onto the edge an arrangement that is termed a " fipple ".
These are known as fipple flutes. The fipple gives the instrument a distinct timbre which is different from non-fipple flutes and makes the instrument easier to play, but takes a degree of control away from the musician. Another division is between side-blown or transverse flutes, such as the Western concert flute, piccolo , fife , dizi and bansuri ; and end-blown flutes , such as the ney , xiao , kaval , danso , shakuhachi , Anasazi flute and quena.
The player of a side-blown flute uses a hole on the side of the tube to produce a tone, instead of blowing on an end of the tube. End-blown flutes should not be confused with fipple flutes such as the recorder , which are also played vertically but have an internal duct to direct the air flow across the edge of the tone hole. Flutes may be open at one or both ends.
The ocarina , xun , pan pipes , police whistle , and bosun's whistle are closed-ended. Open-ended flutes such as the concert flute and the recorder have more harmonics, and thus more flexibility for the player, and brighter timbres.
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An organ pipe may be either open or closed, depending on the sound desired. Flutes may have any number of pipes or tubes, though one is the most common number. Flutes with multiple resonators may be played one resonator at a time as is typical with pan pipes or more than one at a time as is typical with double flutes.
Flutes can be played with several different air sources. Conventional flutes are blown with the mouth, although some cultures use nose flutes. The flue pipes of organs , which are acoustically similar to duct flutes, are blown by bellows or fans. Usually in D, wooden transverse flutes were played in European classical music mainly in the period from the early 18th century to the early 19th century.
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As such the instrument is often indicated as baroque flute. Gradually marginalized by the Western concert flute in the 19th century, baroque flutes were again played from the late 20th century as part of the historically informed performance practice. The Western concert flute , a descendant of the medieval German flute, is a transverse treble flute that is closed at the top. An embouchure hole is positioned near the top across and into which the flutist blows. The flute has circular tone holes larger than the finger holes of its baroque predecessors.
The size and placement of tone holes, key mechanism, and fingering system used to produce the notes in the flute's range were evolved from to by Theobald Boehm and greatly improved the instrument's dynamic range and intonation over its predecessors. Beginner's flutes are made of nickel, silver, or brass that is silver-plated, while professionals use solid silver, gold, and sometimes platinum flutes. There are also modern wooden-bodied flutes usually with silver or gold keywork.
The wood is usually African Blackwood. The standard concert flute is pitched in C and has a range of three octaves starting from middle C or one half step lower when a B foot is attached. This means the concert flute is one of the highest common orchestra and concert band instruments. The piccolo plays an octave higher than the regular treble flute. Lower members of the flute family include the G alto and C bass flutes that are used occasionally, and are pitched a perfect fourth and an octave below the concert flute, respectively. The contrabass , double contrabass , and hyperbass are other rare forms of the flute pitched two, three, and four octaves below middle C respectively.
Other sizes of flutes and piccolos are used from time to time. A rarer instrument of the modern pitching system is the treble G flute. The bamboo flute is an important instrument in Indian classical music , and developed independently of the Western flute. The Hindu God Lord Krishna is traditionally considered a master of the bamboo flute. The Indian flutes are very simple compared to the Western counterparts; they are made of bamboo and are keyless.
Two main varieties of Indian flutes are currently used. The second, the Venu or Pullanguzhal, has eight finger holes, and is played predominantly in the Carnatic music of Southern India. Presently, the eight-holed flute with cross-fingering technique is common among many Carnatic flutists. Prior to this, the South Indian flute had only seven finger holes, with the fingering standard developed by Sharaba Shastri, of the Palladam school, at the beginning of the 20th century.
The quality of the flute's sound depends somewhat on the specific bamboo used to make it, and it is generally agreed that the best bamboo grows in the Nagercoil area of South India. Based on Bharata Natya Shastra Sarana Chatushtai , Avinash Balkrishna Patwardhan in developed a methodology to produce perfectly tuned flutes for the ten 'thatas' currently present in Indian Classical Music.
In a regional dialect of Gujarati, a flute is also called Pavo. Some people can also play pair of flutes Jodiyo Pavo simultaeneously as shown in the video. Most are made of bamboo, but can come in wood, jade, bone, and iron.
One peculiar feature of the Chinese flute is the use of a resonance membrane mounted on one of the holes that vibrates with the air column inside the tube. This membrane is called a di mo , which is usually a thin tissue paper. It gives the flute a bright sound. The sodina is an end-blown flute found throughout the island state of Madagascar , located in the Indian Ocean off southeastern Africa. One of the oldest instruments on the island, it bears close resemblance to end-blown flutes found in Southeast Asia and particularly Indonesia, where it is known as the suling , suggesting the predecessor to the sodina was carried to Madagascar in outrigger canoes by the island's original settlers emigrating from Borneo.
The sring also called blul is a relatively small, end-blown flute with a nasal tone quality  found in the Caucasus region of Eastern Armenia. It is made of wood or cane, usually with seven finger holes and one thumb hole,  producing a diatonic scale. One Armenian musicologist believes the sring to be the most characteristic of national Armenian instruments.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the whole family of side-blown, end-blown, vessel, and duct instruments.
For a list of notable flute performers, see List of flautists. For the wine glass, see Champagne flute. For other uses, see Flute disambiguation. It has been suggested that Murli Instrument be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since April Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Loading recommendations for this item Item is in your Cart. View Cart Proceed to checkout.
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The tone is very nice especially in the upper register. I would have given it four stars if I did not have to remove the tarnish when it arrived. I suppose that is why it was discounted considerably.