In some species, males initiate courtship rituals only after mounting the female. Courtship may even continue after copulation has been completed. This process, known as copulatory courtship, is prevalent in many insect species. In most species, the male sex initiates courtship displays in pre-copulatory sexual selection.
Performing a display allows the male to present his traits or abilities to a female. Mate choice, in this context, is driven by females. Direct or indirect benefits to the female often determine which males reproduce and which do not. Direct benefits may accrue to the female during male courtship behavior.
Females can raise their own fitness if they respond to courtship behavior that signals benefits to the female rather than the fitness of the male. For example, choosing to mate with males that produce local signals would require less energy for a female as she searches for a mate. Indirect benefits are benefits that may not directly affect the parents' fitness but instead increase the fitness of the offspring. Since the offspring of a female will inherit half of the genetic information from the male counterpart, those traits she saw as attractive will be passed on, producing fit offspring.
In this case, males may compete during courtship by displaying desirable traits to pass on to offspring. Female courtship display is less common in nature as a female would have to invest a lot of energy into both exaggerated traits and in their energetically expensive gametes. Male choice in reproduction can arise if males are the sex in a species that are in short supply, for example, if there is a female bias in the operational sex ratio.
This could arise in mating systems where reproducing comes at an energy cost to males. In pipefish Syngnathus typhle , females use a temporary ornament, a striped pattern, to both attract males and intimidate rival females. In this case, the female of a species developed a sexually selected signal which serves a dual function of being both attractive to mates and deterring rivals.
Many species of animals engage in some type of courtship display to attract a mate, such as dancing, the creation of sounds and physical displays. However, many species are not limited to just one of these behaviors. It has been shown that the males of a multitude of species ranging many taxa create complex multi-component signals that have an effect on more than one sensory modality, also known as multi-modal signals.
The multiple message hypothesis states that each signal that a male exhibits will contribute to a possible mate's perception of the male. The redundant signal hypothesis states that the male exhibits multiple signals that portray the same 'message' to the female, with each extra signal acting as a fall-back plan for the male should there be a signaling error.
Alternatively, the choosy sex may attempt to process all of the signals at once to facilitate the evaluation of the opposite sex. The process of multi-modal signaling is believed to help facilitate the courtship process in many species. One such species in which multi-modal signaling is seen to improve mating success is in the green tree frog Hyla cinerea. Many anuran amphibians, such as the green tree frog, may use visual cues as well as auditory signals to increase their chances of impressing a mate. It was seen that female green tree frogs preferred when males coupled the visual display with the auditory communication, concluding that male green tree that are visually accessible can increase their probability of mating success.
Peacock spiders Maratus volans are exceptionally sexually dimorphic in appearance and signaling behavior. During courtship, male peacock spiders compete using both visual displays as well as using vibratory signals for intersexual communication. The combination of these displays in courtship offers support both to the redundant signal and multiple messages hypotheses for the evolution of multi-modal signaling in species.
Multi-modal signaling is not limited to just males. Females in certain species have more than one trait or characteristic that is used in a courtship display to attract mates. In dance flies Rhamphomyia longicauda , females have two ornaments, inflatable abdominal sacs and pinnate tibial scales, that they use as courtship displays in mating swarms. Intermediate variations of such female-specific ornaments are sexually selected for by male dance flies in wild populations. These ornaments may also be a signal of high fecundity in females.
Often, males and females will perform synchronized or responsive courtship displays in a mutual fashion. With many socially monogamous species such as birds, this duet facilitates pre-copulatory reassurance of pair bonding and strengthens post-copulatory dedication to the development of offspring e.
This phenomenon can be seen with long-tailed manakins , Chiroxiphia linearis. Wild turkeys Meleagris gallopavo also engage in co-operative displays in which small groups of males typically brothers work together to attract females and deter other competitive males.
Sexual ornaments can serve to increase attractiveness  and indicate good genes and higher levels of fitness. For example, female canaries have been shown to produce larger and denser eggs in response to male supranormal song production. Sexual conflict is the phenomenon in which the interests of males and females in reproduction are not the same: This has many consequences. Courtship displays allow the mate performing the selection to have a means by which they can base their copulatory decision.
In contrast to upper-middle-class professionals who are mostly hired to conceptualize, supervise, and share their thoughts, many Americans have little autonomy or creative latitude in the workplace. Political behavior is affected by class; more affluent individuals are more likely to vote, and education and income affect whether individuals tend to vote for the Democratic or Republican party.
Income also had a significant impact on health as those with higher incomes had better access to health care facilities, higher life expectancy , lower infant mortality rate and increased health consciousness. In the United States occupation is one of the prime factors of social class and is closely linked to an individual's identity. The average work week in the U. While the average worker in Denmark enjoyed 30 days of vacation annually, the average American had 16 annual vacation days.
In the average American worked 1, hours per year, hours more than the average German, yet hours less than the average Czech. During the U. Census, Whites made up African Americans made up The northern states had outlawed slavery in their territory in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century, though their industrial economies relied on raw materials produced by slaves. Following the Reconstruction period in the s, racist legislation emerged in the Southern states named the Jim Crow laws that provided for legal segregation.
Lynching was practiced throughout the U. Chinese Americans were earlier marginalized as well during a significant proportion of U. Due to exclusion from or marginalization by earlier mainstream society, there emerged a unique subculture among the racial minorities in the United States. Music styles such as jazz , blues , rap , rock and roll , and numerous folk-songs such as Blue Tail Fly Jimmy Crack Corn originated within the realms of African-American culture, and were later adopted by the mainstream. The Hispanic community has also had a dramatic impact on American culture.
Today, Catholics are the largest religious denomination in the United States and outnumber Protestants in the Southwest and California. Economic variance and substantive segregation, is commonplace in the United States. Asian Americans have median household income and educational attainment exceeding that of other races.
After the attacks by Muslim terrorists on September 11, , discrimination against Arabs and Muslims in the U. The American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee ADC reported an increase in hate speech, cases of airline discrimination, hate crimes, police misconduct, and racial profiling. It is customary for Americans to hold a wake in a funeral home within a couple days of the death of a loved one. The body of the deceased may be embalmed and dressed in fine clothing if there will be an open-casket viewing. Traditional Jewish and Muslim practice include a ritual bath and no embalming.
Friends, relatives and acquaintances gather, often from distant parts of the country, to "pay their last respects" to the deceased. Flowers are brought to the coffin and sometimes eulogies , elegies , personal anecdotes or group prayers are recited. Otherwise, the attendees sit, stand or kneel in quiet contemplation or prayer. Kissing the corpse on the forehead is typical among Italian Americans  and others. Condolences are also offered to the widow or widower and other close relatives. A funeral may be held immediately afterwards or the next day. The funeral ceremony varies according to religion and culture.
American Catholics typically hold a funeral mass in a church, which sometimes takes the form of a Requiem mass. Jewish Americans may hold a service in a synagogue or temple. Pallbearers carry the coffin of the deceased to the hearse , which then proceeds in a procession to the place of final repose, usually a cemetery.
The unique Jazz funeral of New Orleans features joyous and raucous music and dancing during the procession. Mount Auburn Cemetery founded in is known as "America's first garden cemetery. Rows of graves are covered by lawns and are interspersed with trees and flowers. Headstones , mausoleums , statuary or simple plaques typically mark off the individual graves. Cremation is another common practice in the United States, though it is frowned upon by various religions.
The ashes of the deceased are usually placed in an urn , which may be kept in a private house, or they are interred. Sometimes the ashes are released into the atmosphere. The "sprinkling" or "scattering" of the ashes may be part of an informal ceremony, often taking place at a scenic natural feature a cliff, lake or mountain that was favored by the deceased. A so-called death industry has developed in the United States that has replaced earlier, more informal traditions.
Before the popularity of funeral homes, people usually held wakes in the parlour rooms of private houses. Marriage laws are established by individual states. The typical wedding involves a couple proclaiming their commitment to one another in front of their close relatives and friends, often presided over by a religious figure such as a minister, priest, or rabbi, depending upon the faith of the couple.
In traditional Christian ceremonies, the bride's father will "give away" hand off the bride to the groom. Secular weddings are also common, often presided over by a judge, Justice of the Peace , or other municipal official. Same-sex marriage is legal in all states. Polygamy is universally banned. Divorce is the province of state governments, so divorce law varies from state to state. Prior to the s, divorcing spouses had to allege that the other spouse was guilty of a crime or sin like abandonment or adultery; when spouses simply could not get along, lawyers were forced to manufacture "uncontested" divorces.
The no-fault divorce revolution began in in California; New York and South Dakota were the last states to begin allowing no-fault divorce. No-fault divorce on the grounds of "irreconcilable differences" is now available in all states. However, many states have recently required separation periods prior to a formal divorce decree. State law provides for child support where children are involved, and sometimes for alimony.
Throughout most of the country's history following independence from Great Britain, the majority race in the United States has been Caucasian, and the largest racial minority has been African-Americans. This relationship has historically been the most important one since the founding of the United States. Currently, most African-Americans are descendants of African slaves imported to the United States, though some are more recent immigrants or their descendants. Slavery existed in the United States at the time of the country's formation in the s.
Slavery was partially abolished by the Emancipation Proclamation issued by president Abraham Lincoln in for slaves in the Southeastern United States during the Civil War. Slavery was rendered illegal by the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Jim Crow Laws prevented full use of African American citizenship until the 20th century. The Civil Rights Movement in the s and the Civil Rights Act of outlawed official or legal segregation in public places or limited access to minorities. Relations between white Americans and other racial or ethnic groups have been a source of tension at various times in U. With the advent of European colonization, and continuing into the early years of the republic, relations between whites and Native American was a significant issue.
In , in response to Chinese immigration due to the Gold Rush and the labor needed for the Transcontinental Railroad, the U. In the late 19th century, the growth of the Hispanic population in the U. A huge majority of Americans of all races disapprove of racism. Professor Imani Perry, of Princeton University , has argued that contemporary racism in the United States "is frequently unintentional or unacknowledged on the part of the actor",  believing that racism mostly stems unconsciously from below the level of cognition. American attitudes towards drugs and alcoholic beverages have evolved considerably throughout the country's history.
In the 19th century, alcohol was readily available and consumed, and no laws restricted the use of other drugs. Attitudes on drug addiction started to change, resulting in the Harrison Act , which eventually became proscriptive. A movement to ban alcoholic beverages, called the Temperance movement, emerged in the late 19th century. Several American Protestant religious groups and women's groups, such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union , supported the movement. In , Prohibitionists succeeded in amending the Constitution to prohibit the sale of alcohol.
Culture of the United States
Although the Prohibition period did result in lowering alcohol consumption overall, [ citation needed ] banning alcohol outright proved to be unworkable, as the previously legitimate distillery industry was replaced by criminal gangs that trafficked in alcohol. Prohibition was repealed in States and localities retained the right to remain "dry", and to this day, a handful still do. During the Vietnam War era, attitudes swung well away from prohibition. Commentators noted that an year-old could be drafted to war but could not buy a beer.
Since , the trend has been toward greater restrictions on alcohol and drug use. The focus this time, however, has been to criminalize behaviors associated with alcohol, rather than attempt to prohibit consumption outright. New York was the first state to enact tough drunk-driving laws in ; since then all other states have followed suit. All states have also banned the purchase of alcoholic beverages by individuals under A " Just Say No to Drugs" movement replaced the more liberal ethos of the s. This led to stricter drug laws and greater police latitude in drug cases.
Since the s, marijuana use has become increasingly tolerated in America, and a number of states allow the use of marijuana for medical purposes.
In most states marijuana is still illegal without medical prescription. Since the general election, voters in the District of Columbia and the states of Alaska , California , Colorado , Maine , Massachusetts , Nevada , Oregon , and Washington approved the legalization of marijuana for recreational use. Marijuana is classified as illegal under federal law. De Tocqueville first noted, in , the American attitude towards helping others in need. Many low-level crimes are punished by assigning hours of " community service ", a requirement that the offender perform volunteer work;  some high schools also require community service to graduate.
Since US citizens are required to attend jury duty , they can be jurors in legal proceedings. From the time of its inception the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and not until the outbreak of World War II did a large standing army become officially established. It draws its manpower from a large pool of paid volunteers ; although conscription has been used in the past in various times of both war and peace, it has not been used since Put together, the United States constitutes roughly 43 percent of the world's military expenditures.
In sharp contrast to most other developed nations , firearms laws in the United States are permissive and private gun ownership is common; almost half of American households contain at least one firearm. Gun ownership tends to be more common in rural than in urban areas. Hunting, plinking and target shooting are popular pastimes, although ownership of firearms for purely utilitarian purposes such as personal protection is common as well. Gun ownership is considerably more prevalent among men than among women; men are approximately four times more likely than women to report owning guns.
In the federal government of the United States , responsibilities that are usually in a cultural minister 's portfolio elsewhere are divided among the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities , the Federal Communications Commission , the Corporation for Public Broadcasting , the U. Department of Commerce , the U. Department of the Interior , the U. However, many state and city governments have a department dedicated to cultural affairs. The Hollywood cinema industry has been very influential on American culture, and to some extent in global culture through transmission of American movies overseas and as other film cultures like Bollywood have striven to emulate the American model.
The United States has influenced the cultures of many other countries, but as countries around the world become more inter-connected and inter-dependent, the general cultural trends of the US and other countries head towards multiculturalism and sociocultural globalization. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article possibly contains original research.
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Original design for the "Be Patriotic" poster by Paul Stahr, c. Languages of the United States. Architecture of the United States. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Theater of the United States. List of American composers. Dance in the United States. Cinema of the United States. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.
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Retrieved 17 October Communication, Memory, and Media in the United States. United States Information Agency. Archived from the original on July 9, Hine; Stanley Harrold The African American Odyssey. United States Census Bureau. University of Missouri-Kansas City. Accessed September 9, The Macmillan company, Architecture in the United States-Oxford history of art. Retrieved September 16, TV by the Numbers. Retrieved September 7, Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 18 September Stands Alone in its Embrace of Religion". Pew Global Attitudes Project.
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Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp. The writings of Thomas Jefferson. In the latter case, the term trophy is broadened to include any substantial difference in power originating from physical looks, wealth, or status. It should be noted that the trophy label is often perceived as objectifying the partner, with or without the partner's implicit consent. Where the primary perceived reason for a relationship with a significant age difference is sexual, many gender-specific terms have become popular in English-speaking cultures.
A woman of middle to elderly age who pursues younger men is a cougar or puma , and a man in a relationship with an older woman is often called a boytoy , toyboy , himbo , or cub. In reverse, the terms rhino , trout and manther a play on the panther term for women are generally used to label an older man pursuing younger women, and the younger woman in such a relationship may be called a kitten or panther.
If the much-younger target of affections is not of the legal age of consent, the term jailbait may be applied to them, with connotations cautioning against involvement. An older term for any licentious or lascivious man is a lecher , and that term and its shortening of lech have become common to describe an elderly man who makes passes at much younger women.
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