The most popular one is Tinder, as in many countries, but the way people use it is slightly different than in the UK or the US where it is mostly used for one-night stands. There is also a percentage looking for a genuine relationship. Bumble is less popular, but the app is gaining traction in Spain. A straw poll of expats seems to show that on Bumble, there is a more even spread of people looking for fun or relationships. The old-fashioned way — the nightlife scene or through friends and colleagues — is arguably one of the best ways to meet someone in Spain, as explained by these lucky-in-love expats:.
Othmane, an expat from Morocco: We met in a club. I was with my friends. They had the table next to us, and I just saw this cute girl and I told her to take a picture of me and a friend and that was how everything started. Amy, an expat from the United States: I saw him from across the room and thought he was really cute, so I made my girls keep moving closer and closer to him.
I was literally standing next to him for like 15 minutes before he actually said something. Once he found out I was from the States, he immediately began speaking English, overjoyed that he now knew someone to help him with it. Expats can meet plenty of people through English centres, casual language exchanges and expat groups and clubs in Spain. Ariadne, a Cuban-American expat: He taught at the centre where my students were teaching. We dated seriously for six years and were engaged when we broke it off.
Mike, a Spanish-American expat: She was one of the teachers there not mine, however and I was completely infatuated with her Andalusian accent.
It was a serious short-term relationship; it lasted about four months. Some have even met through more traditional online dating services for expats. Rose, an expat from the United States: Ardo Beltz Let's start at the beginning. Be persistent Men, take note. Conquer by cooking Italians are frequently excellent cooks, so expect to be cooked for! Dutch dates The general convention in Italy is that the guy will pay for your date, so gentlemen should make sure they bring enough money to cover the bill in case she doesn't offer to chip in. Early As in, 'don't bother being on time'.
Be warned - the turning point is normally when you go to dinner at their parents' house. Gender roles Generally speaking, there is a more defined division of gender roles in Italy, which could cause problems for the first-time Italian dater. High maintenance Let's just say that it's no coincidence that the word 'diva' is an Italian word.
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Intimacy Generally speaking, Italians are much more touchy-feely, which can cause a headache when it comes to reading the signs. You might just be in the dreaded 'friend zone'. Jokes The language of love may be universal, but humour certainly isn't. Look good If you're going on a date with anybody from any nationality you should always put a bit of effort into how you look.
No 'No' means 'no' in both English and Italian - men, take note. Odd numbers Gift giving is always tricky. Play hard to get As a general rule, Italian women are good at this, so don't expect this to be easy guys. Shutterstock Italian men, listen up. Tinder Probably not the best place to start. One woman told The Local that Italians were "way more passionate than Nordic people".
Vanity Italian men have a reputation for vanity so be careful not to insult their good looks! Whatsapp A bit of a double-edged sword. X As in, your partner's dreaded Ex. Don't get it wrong in Italy, or you risk sending out the wrong message. Sign up for our free This week in Italy newsletter. Get notified about breaking news on The Local. Popular articles Brits in EU demand to be spared from Brexit 'train crash' after May's deal rejected Bomb explodes outside historic Naples pizzeria Italian word of the day: Italy braces for 'undesirable' no-deal Brexit after agreement's defeat.
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Italian word of the day: Recent highlights Why Italy's new security decree could be a headache for foreign drivers. The food and drink you need for an Italian Christmas feast. What Italy's new laws mean for your citizenship application. There were four captaincies: These territorial subdivisions had a governor and captain general who in New Spain was the viceroy himself, who added this title to his other dignities. In Guatemala, Santo Domingo and Nueva Galicia, these officials were called presiding governors, since they were leading real audiences. For this reason, these hearings were considered "praetorial.
There were two great estates. King Charles III introduced reforms in the organization of the viceroyalty in , known as Bourbon reforms , which created the intendencias , which allowed to limit, in some way, the viceroy's attributions.
New Spain developed highly regional divisions, reflecting the impact of climate, topography, indigenous populations, and mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, political, and economic organization. The northern area of Mexico, a region of nomadic and semi-nomadic indigenous populations, was not generally conducive to dense settlements, but the discovery of silver in Zacatecas in the s drew settlement there to exploit the mines. Silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain and transformed the global economy.
New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, making the viceroyalty a vital link between Spain's New World empire and its Asian empire. The Kingdom of New Spain was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in as a New World kingdom dependent on the Crown of Castile , since the initial funds for exploration came from Queen Isabella. The king possessed not only the sovereign right but the property rights; he was the absolute proprietor, the sole political head of his American dominions.
Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him. It was on this basis that the conquest, occupation, and government of the [Spanish] New World was achieved. It was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. Until the 18th century, when Spain saw its claims in North America threatened by other European powers, much of what were called the Spanish borderlands consisted of territory now part of the United States.
This was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. To shore up its claims in North America starting in the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska.
The Caribbean islands and early Spanish explorations around the circum-Caribbean region had not been of major political, strategic, or financial importance until the conquest of the Aztec Empire in However, important precedents of exploration, conquest, and settlement and crown rule had been initially worked out in the Caribbean, which long affected subsequent regions, including Mexico and Peru.
This presented both an important opportunity and a potential threat to the power of the Crown of Castile , since the conquerors were acting independent of effective crown control. Since the time of the Catholic Monarchs , central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, but extremely important, advisory body to the monarch. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and more efficient. They were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists.
An earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in to deal with the Caribbean settlements. That court, housed in the Casa Reales in Santo Domingo, was charged with encouraging further exploration and settlements with the authority granted it by the crown. Management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in Because the Roman Catholic Church had played such an important role in the Reconquista Christian reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors , the Church in essence became another arm of the Spanish government.
The Spanish Crown granted it a large role in the administration of the state, and this practice became even more pronounced in the New World, where prelates often assumed the role of government officials. In addition to the Church's explicit political role, the Catholic faith became a central part of Spanish identity after the conquest of last Muslim kingdom in the peninsula, the Emirate of Granada , and the expulsion of all Jews who did not convert to Christianity.
The conquistadors brought with them many missionaries to promulgate the Catholic religion.
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Amerindians were taught the Roman Catholic religion and the language of Spain. Initially, the missionaries hoped to create a large body of Amerindian priests, but this did not come to be. Moreover, efforts were made to keep the Amerindian cultural aspects that did not violate the Catholic traditions. As an example, most Spanish priests committed themselves to learn the most important Amerindian languages especially during the 16th century and wrote grammars so that the missionaries could learn the languages and preach in them. This was similarly practiced by the French colonists. At first, conversion seemed to be happening rapidly.
The missionaries soon found that most of the natives had simply adopted "the god of the heavens," as they called the Christian god, [ citation needed ] as just another one of their many gods. As a result, a second wave of missionaries began an effort to completely erase the old beliefs, which they associated with the ritualized human sacrifice found in many of the native religions, eventually putting an end to this practice common before the arrival of the Spaniards.
In the process many artifacts of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican culture were destroyed. Hundreds of thousands of native codices were burned, native priests and teachers were persecuted, and the temples and statues of the old gods were torn down. Even some foods associated with the native religions, like amaranth , were forbidden. Unfortunately, the royal government was too far away to fully enforce them, and many abuses against the natives, even among the clergy, continued. Eventually, the Crown declared the natives to be legal minors and placed under the guardianship of the Crown, which was responsible for their indoctrination.
It was this status that barred the native population from the priesthood. During the following centuries, under Spanish rule, a new culture developed that combined the customs and traditions of the indigenous peoples with that of Catholic Spain. The Spanish Inquisition , and its New Spanish counterpart, the Mexican Inquisition , continued to operate in the viceroyalty until Mexico declared its independence.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Inquisition worked with the viceregal government to block the diffusion of liberal ideas during the Enlightenment , as well as the revolutionary republican and democratic ideas of the United States War of Independence and the French Revolution. Even before the establishment of the viceroyalty of New Spain, conquerors in central Mexico founded new Spanish cities and embarked on further conquests, a pattern that had been established in the Caribbean.
Spaniards founded new settlements in Puebla de los Angeles founded at the midway point between the Mexico City founded and the Caribbean port of Veracruz Colima , Antequera , now Oaxaca City , and Guadalajara were all new Spanish settlements. Guadalajara was founded northwest of Mexico City —42 and became the dominant Spanish settlement in the region.
West of Mexico City the settlement of Valladolid Michoacan was founded — There was sea trade between Campeche and Veracruz. The discovery of silver in Zacatecas in the far north was a transformative event. The settlement of Zacatecas was founded in deep in the territory of the nomadic and fierce Chichimeca , whose resistance to Spanish presence was the protracted conflict of the Chichimeca War.
During the 16th century, many Spanish cities were established in North and Central America. Spain attempted to establish missions in what is now the southern United States including Georgia and South Carolina between and These efforts were mainly successful in the region of present-day Florida , where the city of St. Augustine was founded in , the oldest European city in the United States. Upon his arrival, Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza vigorously took to the duties entrusted to him by the King and encouraged the exploration of Spain's new mainland territories.
Cabrillo sailed far up the coast, becoming the first European to see present day California, United States. As these new territories became controlled, they were brought under the purview of the Viceroy of New Spain. Spanish settlers expanded to Nuevo Mexico, and the major settlement of Santa Fe was founded in The establishment of religious missions and military presidios on the northern frontier became the nucleus of Spanish settlement and the founding of Spanish towns.
In , the city of Manila became the capital of the Spanish East Indies , with trade soon beginning via the Manila-Acapulco Galleons. The Manila-Acapulco trade route shipped products such as silk, spices, silver, porcelain and gold to the Americas from Asia. Later they were traded across Europe.
The Spanish crown created a system of convoys of ships called the flota to prevent attacks by European privateers. Some isolated attacks on these shipments took place in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea by English and Dutch pirates and privateers. One such act of piracy was led by Francis Drake in , and another by Thomas Cavendish in However, these maritime routes, both across the Pacific and the Atlantic, were successful in the defensive and logistical role they played in the history of the Spanish Empire.
For over three centuries the Spanish Navy escorted the galleon convoys that sailed around the world. He formed the 'Navy of Barlovento' Armada de Barlovento , based in Veracruz, to patrol coastal regions and protect the harbors , port towns, and trade ships from pirates and privateers. After the conquest of central Mexico, there were only two major Indian revolts challenging Spanish rule.
In the Pueblo revolt , Indians in 24 settlements in New Mexico expelled the Spanish, who left for Texas, an exile lasting a decade. The Chichimeca war lasted over fifty years, , between the Spanish and various indigenous groups of northern New Spain, particularly in silver mining regions and the transportation trunk lines.
In the southern area of New Spain, the Tzeltal Maya and other indigenous groups, including the Tzotzil and Chol revolted in It was a multiethnic revolt sparked by religious issues in several communities. During the era of the conquest, in order to pay off the debts incurred by the conquistadors and their companies, the new Spanish governors awarded their men grants of native tribute and labor, known as encomiendas. In New Spain these grants were modeled after the tribute and corvee labor that the Mexica rulers had demanded from native communities.
This system came to signify the oppression and exploitation of natives, although its originators may not have set out with such intent. In short order the upper echelons of patrons and priests in the society lived off the work of the lower classes. With the exception of silver mines worked in the Aztec period at Taxco , southwest of Tenochtitlan, the Mexico's mining region was outside the area of dense indigenous settlement. Labor for the mines in the north of Mexico had a workforce of black slave labor and indigenous wage labor, not draft labor.
With such diversity they did not have a common ethnic identity or language and rapidly assimilated to Hispanic culture. Although mining was difficult and dangerous, the wages were good, which is what drew the indigenous labor. The Viceroyalty of New Spain was the principal source of income for Spain in the eighteenth century, with the revival of mining under the Bourbon Reforms.
The fast red dye cochineal was an important export in areas such as central Mexico and Oaxaca in terms of revenues to the crown and stimulation of the internal market of New Spain. Cacao and indigo were also important exports for the New Spain, but was used through rather the vice royalties rather than contact with European countries due to piracy, and smuggling. There were two major ports in New Spain, Veracruz the viceroyalty's principal port on the Atlantic , and Acapulco on the Pacific, terminus of the Manila Galleon. The ports were fundamental for overseas trade, stretching a trade route from Asia, through the Manila Galleon to the Spanish mainland.
So then, the ships that set sail from Veracruz were generally loaded with merchandise from the East Indies originating from the commercial centers of the Philippines , plus the precious metals and natural resources of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. However, these resources did not translate into development for the Metropolis mother country due to Spanish Roman Catholic Monarchy's frequent preoccupation with European wars enormous amounts of this wealth were spent hiring mercenaries to fight the Protestant Reformation , as well as the incessant decrease in overseas transportation caused by assaults from companies of British buccaneers , Dutch corsairs and pirates of various origin.
These companies were initially financed by, at first, by the Amsterdam stock market , the first in history and whose origin is owed precisely to the need for funds to finance pirate expeditions, as later by the London market. The above is what some authors call the "historical process of the transfer of wealth from the south to the north. The Bourbon monarchy embarked upon a far-reaching program to revitalize the economy of its territories, both on the peninsula and its overseas possessions.
The crown sought to enhance its control and administrative efficiency, and to decrease the power and privilege of the Roman Catholic Church vis-a-vis the state. The British capture and occupation of both Manila and Havana in , during the global conflict of the Seven Years' War , meant that the Spanish crown had to rethink its military strategy for defending its possessions.
The Spanish crown had engaged with Britain for a number of years in low-intensity warfare, with ports and trade routes harassed by English privateers. Santiago de Cuba , St. Augustine Spanish Florida and Campeche and so with the loss of Havana and Manila, Spain realized it needed to take significant steps. The Bourbons created a standing army in New Spain, beginning in , and strengthened defensive infrastructure, such as forts. An important feature of the Bourbon Reforms was that they ended the significant amount of local control that was a characteristic of the bureaucracy under the Habsburgs, especially through the sale of offices.
The Bourbons sought a return to the monarchical ideal of having those not directly connected with local elites as administrators, who in theory should be disinterested, staff the higher echelons of regional government. In practice this meant that there was a concerted effort to appoint mostly peninsulares , usually military men with long records of service as opposed to the Habsburg preference for prelates , who were willing to move around the global empire.
The intendancies were one new office that could be staffed with peninsulares, but throughout the 18th century significant gains were made in the numbers of governors-captain generals, audiencia judges and bishops, in addition to other posts, who were Spanish-born. One of his early tasks was to implement the crown's decision to expel the Jesuits from all its territories, accomplished in Since the Jesuits had significant power, owning large, well managed haciendas, educating New Spain's elite young men, and as a religious order resistant to crown control, the Jesuits were a major target for the assertion of crown control.
Croix closed the religious autos-de-fe of the Holy Office of the Inquisition to public viewing, signaling a shift in the crown's attitude toward religion. Other significant accomplishments under Croix's administration was the founding of the College of Surgery in , part of the crown's push to introduce institutional reforms that regulated professions.
The crown was also interested in generating more income for its coffers and Croix instituted the royal lottery in Croix also initiated improvements in the capital and seat of the viceroyalty, increasing the size of its central park, the Alameda. Teodoro de Croix nephew of the former viceroy was appointed the first Commander General of the Provincias Internas, independent of the Viceroy of New Spain, to provide better administration for the northern frontier provinces.
The crown also established a standing military, with the aim of defending its overseas territories. The Spanish Bourbons monarchs' prime innovation introduction of intendancies , an institution emulating that of Bourbon France. With broad powers over tax collection and the public treasury and with a mandate to help foster economic growth over their districts, intendants encroached on the traditional powers of viceroys, governors and local officials, such as the corregidores , which were phased out as intendancies were established.
The Crown saw the intendants as a check on these other officers. Over time accommodations were made. For example, after a period of experimentation in which an independent intendant was assigned to Mexico City, the office was thereafter given to the same person who simultaneously held the post of viceroy. Nevertheless, the creation of scores of autonomous intendancies throughout the Viceroyalty, created a great deal of decentralization, and in the Captaincy General of Guatemala , in particular, the intendancy laid the groundwork for the future independent nations of the 19th century.
Millions of pesos were given. The focus on the economy and the revenues it provided to the royal coffers was also extended to society at large. Economic associations were promoted, such as the Economic Society of Friends of the Country. Similar "Friends of the Country" economic societies were established throughout the Spanish world, including Cuba and Guatemala. The Bourbon Reforms were not a unified or entirely coherent program, but a series of crown initiatives designed to revitalize the economies of its overseas possessions and make administration more efficient and firmly under control of the crown.
Record keeping improved and records were more centralized. The bureaucracy was staffed with well-qualified men, most of them peninsular-born Spaniards. The preference for them meant that there was resentment from American-born elite men and their families, who were excluded from holding office. The creation of a military meant that some American Spaniards became officers in local militias, but the ranks were filled with poor, mixed-race men, who resented service and avoided it if possible.
The first century that saw the Bourbons on the Spanish throne coincided with series of global conflicts that pitted primarily France against Great Britain. Spain as an ally of Bourbon France was drawn into these conflicts. In fact part of the motivation for the Bourbon Reforms was the perceived need to prepare the empire administratively, economically and militarily for what was the next expected war.
The Seven Years' War proved to be catalyst for most of the reforms in the overseas possessions, just like the War of the Spanish Succession had been for the reforms on the Peninsula. In , the Villasur expedition from Santa Fe met and attempted to parley with French - allied Pawnee in what is now Nebraska.
Negotiations were unsuccessful, and a battle ensued; the Spanish were badly defeated, with only thirteen managing to return to New Mexico. Although this was a small engagement, it is significant in that it was the deepest penetration of the Spanish into the Great Plains , establishing the limit to Spanish expansion and influence there. The major action in the War of Jenkins' Ear was a major amphibious attack launched by the British under Admiral Edward Vernon in March against Cartagena de Indias , one of Spain's major gold-trading ports in the Caribbean today Colombia.
Although this episode is largely forgotten, it ended in a decisive victory for Spain, who managed to prolong its control of the Caribbean and indeed secure the Spanish Main until the 19th century. Louisiana settlers, hoping to restore the territory to France, in the bloodless Rebellion of forced the Louisiana Governor Antonio de Ulloa to flee to Spain. The rebellion was crushed in by the next governor Alejandro O'Reilly , who executed five of the conspirators.
The Louisiana territory was to be administered by superiors in Cuba with a governor on site in New Orleans. The 21 northern missions in present-day California U. Spain's long-held claims and navigation rights were strengthened and a settlement and fort were built in Nootka Sound , Alaska. Galvez's army consisted of Spanish regulars from throughout Latin America and a militia which consisted of mostly Acadians along with Creoles, Germans, and Native Americans.
Galvez was angry that the operation had proceeded against his orders to cancel, and ordered the arrest and imprisonment of Francisco de Miranda , aide-de-camp of Juan Manuel Cajigal , the commander of the expedition. Miranda later ascribed this action on the part of Galvez to jealousy of Cajigal's success. These hopes ended when Spain was pressured into signing Pinckney's Treaty in New Spain claimed the entire west coast of North America and therefore considered the Russian fur trading activity in Alaska, which began in the middle to late 18th century, an encroachment and threat.
Likewise, the exploration of the northwest coast by Captain James Cook of the British Navy and the subsequent fur trading activities by British ships was considered an encroachment on Spanish territory. To protect and strengthen its claim, New Spain sent a number of expeditions to the Pacific Northwest between and It was protected by an artillery land battery called Fort San Miguel.
Santa Cruz de Nuca was the northernmost establishment of New Spain. It was the first European colony in what is now the province of British Columbia and the only Spanish settlement in what is now Canada. Santa Cruz de Nuca remained under the control of New Spain until , when it was abandoned under the terms of the third Nootka Convention. Its personnel, livestock, cannons, and ammunition were transferred to Nuca.
The first Nootka Convention averted the war but left many specific issues unresolved. Both sides sought to define a northern boundary for New Spain. That treaty also ceded Spanish Florida to the United States. That treaty also defined a northern border for New Spain, at 42d north now the northern boundary of the U. In the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire , both Mexico and Central America declared their independence after three centuries of Spanish rule and formed the First Mexican Empire , although Central America quickly rejected the union.
After priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla 's Grito de Dolores call for independence , the insurgent army began an eleven-year war. At first, the Criollo class fought against the rebels.
The specter of liberalism that could undermine the authority and autonomy of the Roman Catholic Church made the Church hierarchy in New Spain view independence in a different light. In an independent nation, the Church anticipated retaining its power. Central America was originally planned to be part of the Mexican Empire; but it seceded peacefully in , forming the United Provinces of Central America under the Constitution of The Viceroyalty of New Spain united many regions and provinces of the Spanish Empire throughout half a world.
In the Caribbean it included Cuba, Santo Domingo , most of the Venezuelan mainland and the other islands in the Caribbean controlled by the Spanish. The outpost at Nootka Sound, on Vancouver Island , was considered part of the province of California. The Viceroyalty was administered by a viceroy residing in Mexico City and appointed by the Spanish monarch , who had administrative oversight of all of these regions, although most matters were handled by the local governmental bodies, which ruled the various regions of the viceroyalty.
First among these were the audiencias , which were primarily superior tribunals, but which also had administrative and legislative functions. Each of these was responsible to the Viceroy of New Spain in administrative matters though not in judicial ones , but they also answered directly to the Council of the Indies. Audiencia districts further incorporated the older, smaller divisions known as governorates gobernaciones , roughly equivalent to provinces , which had been originally established by conquistador-governors known as adelantados.
Provinces, which were under military threat, were grouped into captaincies general , such as the Captaincies General of the Philippines established and Guatemala established in mentioned above, which were joint military and political commands with a certain level of autonomy. The viceroy was captain-general of those provinces that remained directly under his command. At the local level there were over two hundred districts, in both Indian and Spanish areas, which were headed by either a corregidor also known as an alcalde mayor or a cabildo town council , both of which had judicial and administrative powers.
In the late 18th century the Bourbon dynasty began phasing out the corregidores and introduced intendants , whose broad fiscal powers cut into the authority of the viceroys, governors and cabildos. Despite their late creation, these intendancies so affected the formation of regional identity that they became the basis for the nations of Central America and the first Mexican states after independence.
The high courts, or audiencias , were established in major areas of Spanish settlement. In New Spain the high court was established in , prior to the establishment of the viceroyalty. The First Audiencia was dissolved and the Second Audiencia established. Santo Domingo , effective , predated the Viceroyalty 2. Mexico , predated the Viceroyalty 3. Panama 1st one, — 4.